I was having a discussion with a secondary level English teacher about teaching words with Latin and Greek roots. This teacher was feeling lukewarm about the current program/workbook being used in his district to teach them. I was gushing about what my students have been doing, and how they’ve been learning about words from Old English. Then I went on to tell him about having my students recognize clues in a word’s spelling that hint at the word’s origin. And that was when he asked it. The question that revealed just how little he knew about our language and the reasons the words in it have particular spellings.
“What does it matter if a word comes from Latin, Greek, or Old English?”
Now, let me just say, I completely understand where this question is coming from. If all you are doing with regards to spelling is rote memorization, then there would seem to be no need to know more about the word. BUT as a person who has crossed that line so to speak, I can explain it like this. Remember watching The Wizard of Oz and noticing that the movie starts off as black and white, predictable and drab, but the minute Dorothy lands in Oz everything is in color? Everything becomes instantly interesting and memorable? It’s like that. It’s the difference between skimming the surface for information and seeking a deeper level of knowledge.
As classroom teachers there is often that desire to provide students with the opportunity to dig deep, yet there is this thing called a schedule. There are places to be and other things needed to be taught. The result is that we skim topics more often than we should. We have moments of depth, but those moments are saved for “big” topics that come up in reading, science, social studies or math. Who ever thinks of creating deep meaningful investigations in spelling? Or grammar? Or vocabulary? But don’t you see? That is where it makes the most sense to do so. These are the basic places in which our ability to communicate is born. This is where we begin to put words together – to think, to speak, to read, to write. But investigating words has never been modeled for today’s teachers by their teachers. For the most part, teachers use their own childhood classroom experiences as a guide for themselves. Sure, methods and strategies have changed, but not much has changed as far as teaching reading or spelling. Aren’t we still teaching phonics and rote memorization of spelling words? Knowing whether a word came from Latin, Greek, or Old English didn’t matter to my teachers back in the day, and for many who are still following the way it’s always been done, it doesn’t matter now.
If you are a passionate vegetable gardener, you know there is a difference between different varieties of tomatoes. You can talk about those differences with enthusiasm in your voice. You know which variety will make the best spaghetti sauce, which the best ketchup and which will be best for fresh eating. It’s the same for someone who can talk about cars and the different models built over time. That person knows great stories about certain failed models and which designs have stood the test of time. What about someone who constructs buildings and knows about the strengths of the possible materials to use? That person is prepared to use specific materials for specific reasons whether those reasons be for strength or aesthetics. You see? Once you dig past the surface and begin to understand your subject matter, that subject matter reveals its importance to you.
It definitely matters. When a word was born. Where a word originated. Which languages a word passed through. These are the bits of etymological information that tell a word’s story. And that story is what explains a modern word’s spelling.
One of the biggest reasons so many people don’t understand English spelling is because they don’t know much about where our words come from or the clues present in PDE (Present Day English) words that tip us off to a word’s birthplace. Let me explain with examples:
Words with <ch> pronounced as /k/ such as choir, echo, orchid, dichotomy, and chronicle are from Greek. I know because I routinely investigate words and pay attention to what I see. So do my students. In our journey to learn more about our language, we’ve learned a bit about the Greek alphabet. Here’s a video of my students reciting it.
We know that one of the letters was χ (chi) . When the words with χ were transcribed into Latin, the scribes wrote <ch> since Latin did not have that same letter. Another letter was φ (phi), and a similar thing happened with Greek words that had φ in them. That letter was transcribed as <ph> since that same letter didn’t exist in Latin. So words with <ph> pronounced as /f/ such as photograph, sophomore, philosopher, telephone, and hydrophobia are also from Greek.
You might recognize Greek letters as representing college fraternities and sororities. Isn’t it interesting that the words fraternity and sorority are from Latin frater “brother” and Latin soror “sister”, yet those organizations have historically chosen Greek letters to identify themselves? The first was the fraternity Phi Betta Kappa. It was established in 1776 and the name comes from phi (φ) + beta (β) + kappa (κ), initials of the society’s Greek motto, “φιλοσοφια βιου κυβερνητης”, meaning “philosophy is the guide of life”. There is a thorough history of the first fraternity at this Colonial Williamsburg site. The first sorority was Alpha Delta Pi and was established in 1851. I could not find the significance of the three Greek letters used as I could with the first fraternity. Ah, but I digress. Such is the life of a scholar! Can you imagine what it feels like when your students become scholars and rush into your classroom to tell you about a word they investigated the previous evening? It’s positively delicious!
Recognizing and understanding these things helps with spelling, reading and pronunciation. Those are obvious once you begin this journey with your students. But knowing the etymology of a word also brings a beauty to the words we speak every day. It’s like getting to know a student throughout the year. By the end of the year, that student is special to you because you understand who he/she is as a person. You see the beauty that radiates and the potential that lies within. Words are not so very different.
Here’s one more: words with a medial <y> such as hymn, hydrosphere, lyric, myth, type, cycle, and syllable are typically from Greek. This is something your student might discover if they investigate the phonology of the single letter grapheme <y>.
As you can see in the picture, two different students looked closely at the grapheme <y> and the phonemes it represented in a number of words. As the heading of each list I had my students use IPA symbols because they represent pronunciation no matter the word’s spelling. The IPA symbol that represents the grapheme <y> in words like hymn, myth and syllable is /ɪ/. The IPA symbol that represents the grapheme <y> in words like hydrosphere, cycle, and type is /ai/. Knowing the possible phonemes when a <y> is medial is helpful when considering a word’s pronunciation.
Another discovery as my students were investigating specific graphemes happened with the consonant digraph <ch>.
If you notice the middle column, you may be able to guess that these words are either from French or spent enough time in that language to have their spelling affected by it. What a cool explanation for words in which the grapheme <ch> is represented by the phoneme /ʃ/ as it is in crochet, chef, parachute and others!
There are other clues that will signal that a word is from Greek. For instance, look at connecting vowels. They are found in words of both Greek and Latin ancestry. Words whose base elements are from Greek might use an <o> connecting vowel. Words whose base elements come from Latin might use an <i>, <u> or <e>. Connecting vowels follow a base element and need to be followed by another element. They can be used to connect two base elements to create a compound word (as in tachometer and conifer). They might also connect a base element to a suffix (as in igneous and partial). Knowing about connecting vowels helps when determining a word’s structure or morphology.
Just think of all the great things one can be aware of when having knowledge of a word’s origin! What I have shared in this post is a very short list. There are many more delightful things to recognize regarding words from Latin, Old English, French and other languages as well. Experts don’t all agree, but many will say that over 60% of our modern words come from Latin, Greek and French. That’s enough to convince me that my students and I need to know more about the language we use!
So why does it matter? Why is it helpful to know which language a word was born in or influenced by? Because that is where the word’s story is. Because that is what explains the word’s structure and spelling. Because that is where we build an understanding that spreads across many of the words in our language. Because that’s where we find clues to a word’s pronunciation. Because that’s where we begin to appreciate what a beautiful language we have.